Nowadays many farmers are shifting farming to other professions due to insufficient financial protection. Climatic change is a significant challenge for the farmer. More than 95% farmer uses the traditional farming technique in India. If we wanted to earn more profit from agriculture, we have to adopt modern farming techniques such as greenhouse farming ( polyhouse farming), hydroponic farming.
In India, we import many fruits, vegetables, and flower from other countries and pay them very good money. If we grow this flower vegetable & fruit in our country with the help of modern techniques, we can earn an outstanding amount of money, so I say this modern technique like greenhouse farming will improve the living standard of our Indian farmer.
what is Greenhouse?
A Greenhouse is a framed structure covered with transparent material and large enough to grow crops under partial or fully controlled environmental conditions to get optimum growth and productivity.
Greenhouse Technology is the technique of providing favorable environment condition to the plants.
Of all agricultural production activities, the greenhouse industry is worldwide the fastest growing sector. The greenhouse is goldmines that offer the most profitable business opportunities.
The use of the greenhouse is mainly for the production of seasonal and non- seasonal crops, for the production of high-quality flower, vegetable and the preparation of nursery prepared by tissue culture.
Greenhouses offer many advantages
Advantages of Greenhouse:
- The yield may be 10-12 times higher than that of outdoor cultivation depending upon the type of greenhouse, type of crop, environmental control facilities.
- Reliability of crop increases under greenhouse cultivation.
- Ideally suited for vegetables and flower crops.
- Year round production of floricultural crops.
- Off-season production of vegetable and fruit crops.
- Disease-free and genetically superior transplants can be produced continuously.
- Efficient utilization of chemicals, pesticides to control pest and diseases.
- Water requirement of crops very limited and easy to control
How to start greenhouse farming?
To start greenhouse farming is required heavy expenditure on infrastructure, equipment, labor, a raw material also greenhouse farmer must have technical, economical & marketing knowledge hence you must finish a practical training program.
In India, there is various government & NGO organization provide, Greenhouse farming ( polyhouse Farming) training. However, AVT Organic is a best service provider and also provide a Few-day greenhouse farming training and also helps to get start your own greenhouse farming business.
To start greenhouse farming follow this step.
1) Overview Of Greenhouse
Difference between polyhouse and greenhouse?
There is no such difference between polyhouse and greenhouse. The greenhouse is the broad term, Polyhouse is among the kinds of Greenhouse in which polyethylene is used as the main material for construction. The durability of the polyhouse is more compared to other types of Greenhouse.
Let’s understand which are the different type of greenhouse –
I ) Types of Greenhouse:
There are different types of greenhouses available based on shape, construction, material, and ventilation. Each greenhouse has own advantage. Different types of a greenhouse are designed to match the specific needs.
generally, in India sawtooth Natural Vent Greenhouse is used for cut flower, vegetable production purpose
A) Greenhouse type based on Shape
- Sawtooth type Greenhouse
- Ridge and furrow type greenhouse
- Uneven span type greenhouse
- Even span type greenhouse.
- Sawtooth type.
- Quonset greenhouse.
- Interlocking ridges greenhouse.
- Ground to ground greenhouse
B) Greenhouse type based on construction
- Wooden framed structures
- Pipe framed structures
C) Greenhouse type based on covering materials
- Glass greenhouse
- plastic greenhouse
D) Greenhouse type based on ventilation
1. Natural Vent Greenhouse –
This type of greenhouse is based on natural ventilation and depending on the crops the temperature, humidity, and carbon dioxide gas can be maintained as per the requirement.
In this Greenhouse, plastic nets are used to prevent insect and bacterial access.
2. Climate control Greenhouse: –
In such a greenhouse, temperature and humidity are controlled by using micro-irrigation techniques. The in this type greenhouse internal environment is fully managed. This type of greenhouse mostly uses for Hi-tech Nursery.
II) Point to consider before Selecting Greenhouse site
Before deciding to start greenhouse farming, you have to consider the following point to become successful in greenhouse farming
- Soil PH Should be between 5.5 to 6.5 and EC (Volatility) 0.3 to 0.5 mm cm/cm
- Good water quality is continuously available.
- The irrigation water samples should be range from PH 5.5 to 7.0 and E.C. 0.1 to 0.3
- The selected place should be pollution-free.
- There should be roads for transportation and shipping of goods in the market.
- The place should be large enough for the upcoming expansion.
- Workers should be available easily and cheap.
- There should be excellent communication facilities in place.
- The drainage of the soil should be excellent.
III) Which Crop Suitable for Greenhouse Farming
To star Greenhouse farming required high investment hence though the crop is having high commercial value & sustainable market demand this crop cultivated in the Greenhouse.
Floriculture crop like all cut flower & vegetable is mostly grown in the greenhouse.
Which are the top profitable crop in the greenhouse? The profitability of greenhouse each crop depends upon the various factors such as market, climatic condition, labour, raw material availability.
2) Apply For Bank Loan
The initial investment for greenhouse farming is enormous. To start Greenhouse farming cost per acre is come to approximately 45 Lac- 60 Lac.
Many banks are interested in providing Horticulture loans to farmers.
To get a loan for the greenhouse, you have to Create Greenhouse farming project report with the help of the chartered accountant or any agency and present to the bank for loan officer also this project report is useful for an apply subsidy for the greenhouse.
Steps for creating a project report
- Introduction about Greenhouse farmer
- The need of Greenhouse project
- Technical analysis
- Economical analysis
- Also, the following document needed for the bank loan.
- Detailed Project Report
- 7/12 of land
Bank provide Loan with 12%-14% interest, for the 5-7 year period and mostly many bank offer EMI (equated monthly installment) option quarterly or every six months.
For the subsidy, purpose takes the loan from nationals bank, district bank and this is precondition government stated in subsidy norm
4) Place an order Greenhouse construction company.
After government approves Letter of Intent (LOI) for subsidy & passing bank loan Next step is to Start greenhouse construction there are many greenhouse construction companies available in market contact them and check past company project ( work quality) & negotiated for greenhouse construction rate.
Required Cost to set a Polyhouse
To establish a Polyhouse (greenhouse), it costs around Rs.700 to Rs.1000 per square meter. The cost depends on some factors like quality of the material quality, size, shape, transport, and structure.
5) Plant Booking/ Ordering
To produce a good quality flower and vegetable plant quality must superior quality and free from any disease.
In India, there are very few nurseries who are providing the excellent quality plant for the greenhouse so place booking order before setup plastic cover on the greenhouse to avoid delay in the plantation.
before plant booking following point should be considered
- which variety has market demand
- variety production yield performance
- which variety suitable for our climate
You can collect this information form nursery representative also form another greenhouse owner also remember plant nursery company not only sell plant they entirely give plant cultivation guidance so don’t hesitate any plant related query.
6) Safe Work Practices
Every crop has a different cultivation and management procedure. Plant nursery company provide detail guidelines for fertilization schedule, pest & disease control management procedure.
The Key to become a successful greenhouse farmer is “Every day close monitoring crop” it is helpful for understanding any pest, disease attack on the crop at an early stage. also it helps to understand nutrients deficiency in the plant.
There are some important tools must be required for every greenhouse farmer
- EC-PH Meter – This meter is helpful for soil and water analysis it is important to decide fertilizer dose combination.
- Hygrometer -Thermometer – This device show humidity and a temperature inside the greenhouse.
Export quality product produces in the greenhouse as per market specification create packaging and market them with own marketing or with the help of an agent or broker.
For cut flower & vegetable the major market is in a metro city like Hyderabad, Mumbai, Delhi, Ahmedabad, Kolkata, Pune, Banglore, Rajasthan.